In recent years Mongolia has experienced significant outbreaks of novel infectious diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. These outbreaks have revealed weaknesses in the public health infrastructure. There is a large herder population which has more chance to contract zoonotic diseases as the livestock population estimated 55 million in Mongolia as of 2012.
In the recent years endemic zoonoses have expanded and outbreaks of emerging transboundary diseases have emerged in both animal and human. Climate change and extreme weather conditions have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and micro flora, which can lead to the emergence of zoonotic agents and create favorable conditions for disease outbreaks. Endemic zoonotic diseases such as Brucellosis, Anthrax, Rabies, Plague, Foot and Mouth diseases and Tick-borne diseases create important public health problems.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) was first recognized in late 2005 and subsequently identified in 2008 and 2009 among the wild birds. First cases of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 were first identified in Mongolia in early October 2009 and quickly spread to the rests of the country. As of April 2010, a total of 1 384 confirmed cases and 30 deaths have been reported. Outbreaks of human and animal Anthrax, animal Rabies, food poisoning, Hepatitis A, Mumps, neonatal infections have been reported in the 2011-2012.