Mongolia is experiencing an epidemiological and demographic transition, with a decline in morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases and an increasing burden from chronic and noncommunicable diseases, as reflected in the five leading causes of mortality. In 2007, diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasm, and injury, poisoning and other consequences of external causes together accounted for 75.3% of all deaths.
According to the WHO estimates, cerebrovascular disease, liver cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and road traffic accidents are the main causes of death, accounting for nearly one third of total deaths in 2004. The table also shows that the major contributors to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are perinatal conditions, cerebrovascular disease, and road traffic accidents.
Injuries, poisonings and other external causes represent the major cause of death and disability, particularly in younger age groups. The rate of injury and poisoning among the 16-19 age groups is 2.3 times the rate in the total population.
According to preliminary data from the NCD STEPS risk factor survey of 2009, the overall prevalence of smokers was 27.5 %. Of these, 62.7% % had high blood pressure and 58.5% consumed alcohol. The proportion of people who consume fewer than five servings of vegetable and fruit was 93.2%. The proportion of overweight and obese people was 53.6%; the proportion of people with raised levels of cholesterol was 40.5%. Some 70% of Mongolians use salted tea and the average daily intake of salt (15.1 gm) is more than two times the salt intake recommended by WHO (6 gm).
Liver cancer stands out as one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity, requiring special attention. HBV and HCV are the most important causes of chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma in the country. The high intake of alcohol accelerates the course of chronic liver disease from these two viruses leading to development of chronic hepatitis and liver cancer at a much younger age than seen in other countries.
- Strategic priority 1: Health system strengthening through primary health care approach
- Strategic priority 2: Scaling up prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), injuries, violence and their determinants
- Strategic priority 3. Sustaining and accelerating the achievement of health related MDG targets
- Strategic priority 4. Strengthening health security, including control of communicable and vaccine preventable diseases
- Strategic priority 5: Strengthen Environmental health programme