The most frequent and dangerous co-infections with HIV are tuberculosis and hepatitis C.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of HIV-related deaths and a common presenting illness worldwide. Globally, approximately 30% of HIV-infected persons are estimated to have latent TB infection. In 2008, there were an estimated 1.4 million new cases of TB among persons with HIV infection and TB accounted for 23% of AIDS-related deaths. The Western Pacific Region carries one third of the entire global TB burden.
The World Health Organization recommends 12 collaborative HIV/TB activities, including the Three I’s for HIV/TB (isoniazid preventive treatment [IPT], intensified case finding, and infection control for TB), which should be seen as core prevention, care and treatment services for HIV infection. In addition to the Three I’s for HIV/TB and other HIV prevention efforts, antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers considerable hope for prevention of both HIV infection and TB, because risk of developing TB approaches 10%–20% per annum among immuno-compromised persons. Perhaps most importantly for TB control, persons receiving ART are less likely to transmit HIV.