The estimated population of Viet Nam was 86 025 000 in 2009, 49.4% of them male. The population density is 263 persons per square kilometre, with most (70.3%) of the population living in rural areas. Over the past few years, the country has witnessed a gradual change in its population structure. In 2009, 25% of the population was aged 0-14 years, a decrease of 8.1% in comparison with 1999. However, the proportion aged over 65 years also increased rapidly (by 0.6 %) over the same ten-year period. This shows that fertility has continued to decline over recent years while the number of elderly has been increasing gradually.
Viet Nam has 54 different ethnic groups, with the Kinh representing 87% of the total population. The rest are ethnic minorities scattered all over the country, mostly in mountainous and remote areas. Population migration is an important factor in rural-urban population growth differentials. The General Statistics Office survey on migration and family planning indicates that substantial spontaneous migration has been taking place and that migrants from rural to urban areas are numerous.
In 2009, life expectancy at birth was 70.2 for males and 75.6 for females. In the same year, the population growth rate was 1.08% per annum. The total fertility rate decreased from 2.33 in 1999 to 2.03 in 2009, reaching replacement-level fertility. In 2009, the crude birth rate was 17.6 per 1000 population and the crude death rate was 6.8 per 1000 population.
Country health information profile
- You may find the 2012 and/or latest available data in the Data and Analytics section of the Health Information and Intelligence Platform.
WHO Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS)
News and press releases
Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: Member States commit to leave no one behind
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Sixty-seventh session of the Regional Committee for the Western Pacific opens in Manila
Viet Nam joined WHO on 17 May 1950. At the time of joining, it was one of the French Union's Associate States. It obtained its independence in 1955 with the country divided into North and South. When the Vietnam War ended on 30 April 1975, North and South were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
On 1 January 1956, the WHO Representative Office in Saigon was established and covered Cambodia, the Laos People's Democratic Republic and Viet Nam. The office was relieved of its duties over Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic in April 1962 and January 1968, respectively, when a WHO Representative Office was established in each country. In 1975, the Office was closed in abeyance of Viet Nam. Following the country’s unification in 1975, the WHO Representative Office in Ha Noi, Viet Nam was re-opened in 1977.
WHO Country Office
World Health Organization 304 Kim Ma Street Ha Noi Viet Nam
World Health Organization P.O. Box 52 Hanoi, Viet Nam
+84 (0) 4 38 500 100 +84 (0) 4 38 501 888
+84 (0) 4 37 265 519 +84 (0) 4 37 265 520
08.00 to 12.00 13.00 to 17.00 (Monday to Friday)
Ministry of Health
138A Giang Vo, Hanoi, Viet Nam
Telephone number:(84 4) 3846 1325
(84 4) 3846 4051
|Population (in thousands) ( 2009 )||86025|
|Population aged 5-14 years (%) ( 2009 )||16.5|
|Life expectancy at birth (years) ( 2009 )||72.8|
|Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births) ( 2009 )||24.1|
|Total health expenditure as % of GDP ( 2009 )||7.2|
|General government health expenditure as % of total government expenditure ( 2009 )||8.9|
|Human development index ( 2010 )||0.572|
|Per capita GDP at current market prices (US$) ( 2009 )||1064|
|Population below national poverty line (%) ( 2006 )||28.9|
|Literacy rate among adults aged >= 15 years (%) ( 2009 )||93.8753|
|Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births) ( 2009 )||69|
|Proportion of the population using improved drinking water source ( 2008 )||94|
|Population using improved sanitation facilities (%) ( 2008 )||75|