Child and adolescent health

Essential package of child survival

Immunization of children and mothers

Immunization of children with BCG and hepatitis B vaccines at birth; DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) and polio vaccines started at age six weeks for three doses; measles vaccine at nine months is well-established in many countries as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). New vaccines: Haemophilus influenzae type B, rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal vaccine had been introduced in many countries. To ensure protection of newborns against tetanus, the mother should have received two doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine during the recent pregnancy. Vaccines are made available through many channels: health centres; outpatient clinics; outreach; and special immunization days. Immunization activities may include delivery of other interventions such as vitamin A supplementation, deworming, distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, distribution of iron and folate supplements for women of reproductive age, and distribution of contraceptive supplies.