Kingdom of Bhutan (2017)
The Kingdom of Bhutan has made great achievement in establishing and sustaining public financed and managed health system in the past five and a half decades. As enshrined in the Constitution, health services are free in the integrated traditional and allopathic medicines. The report also notes the epidemiological and health system challenges and the way forward to overcome in line with achieving SDGs.
The Republic of Indonesia HiT (2017)
The Indonesia HiT reports the significant improvement in the health status of the population over the last 25 years through transitional period in all fields. However, the country faces remaining and foreseeing challenges in communicable diseases and emerging NCDs. The HiT concludes with the future challenges of expanding coverage of National health insurance scheme (JKN), reducing regional disparities in health-care services, managing resources and engaging private sector.
People's Republic of China (2015) - Available In Chinese Language
The People’s Republic of China has made great achievements in improving health status over the past six decades, mainly due to the government’s commitment to health, provision of cost effective public health programmes, growing coverage of health financial protection mechanisms and investments in an extensive health-care delivery network.
Kingdom of Tonga (2015)
The Kingdom of Tonga has had one of the best overall levels of health within the Pacific as a result of a dramatic reduction in communicable diseases and maternal and child mortality since the 1950s. It is also on target to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) around maternal and child mortality. Adapting its strong primary health-care system to deal with the large financial burden associated with chronic and noncommunicable diseases and ensuring quality primary health-care services in remote areas are the main health sector challenges facing Tonga.
Kingdom of Thailand (2015) - Available In Thai Language
The Thailand HiT reports that sustained political commitment to the health of the population since the 1970s has resulted in significant investment in health infrastructure, in particular primary health care, district and provincial referral hospitals, and strengthened the overall functioning of the Thai health system. After Thailand achieved universal health coverage in 2002, public expenditure on health significantly increased from 63% to 77% and out-of-pocket expense was reduced from 27.2% to 12.4% of the total health spending in 2011.
Republic of Korea (2015)
The Republic of Korea HiT notes that economic development and universal health coverage through national health insurance has led to a rapid improvement in health outcomes. Overall, the health status of the Korean population is better than that of many other Asian countries. Reducing inequality in health coverage outcomes, strengthening primary health care and improving coordination between hospitals and long-term care facilities to meet the needs of the aged population are the challenges facing the Government.
The health system of Bangladesh has undergone a number of reforms and has established an extensive health service infrastructure in both the public and private sectors during the past four decades. Bangladesh has achieved impressive gains in population health, achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 target of reducing under-five child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015, and improving other key indicators such as maternal mortality, immunization coverage, and survival rates from malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrhoea diseases.
The Cambodia HiT reports that the national health sector reforms initiated two decades ago have had a positive impact on Cambodia’s health sector. The country’s health status has substantially improved since 1993 and is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. Improving the quality of care is now the most pressing imperative in health-system strengthening.
Solomon Islands (2015)
The Solomon Islands HiT determines that the country’s health system has significant weaknesses but also considerable strengths. Despite the range and difficulty of issues facing policy-makers in the Solomon Islands, there have been significant achievements in health, including considerable progress in advancing population health status. The performance of the health system is positive, achieving high coverage, high satisfaction levels, and steady progress on health outcomes. Nonetheless, the country faces important health challenges that could undermine development gains made to date.
The Myanmar HiT reports of positive indications that, along with the changes in the country’s political system and administrative structures following the 2010 national elections, the new government is undertaking important reforms in the health sector. Along with the need to further improve health equity among its population, Myanmar has to overcome supply side limitations of the past, and effectively manage incoming challenges.
Lao PDR (2014)
Lao PDR HiT: The Lao PDR HiT reports on impressive health gains over the past 3 decades due to strong political commitment to develop the health system. The results, however, have been mixed and gaps remain between policy intentions and effective implementation.
New Zealand (2014) New Zealand HiT: New Zealand continues to have a predominantly tax-funded health system, providing universal coverage managed by the District Health Boards. The population enjoys high health status overall, but with significant inequalities in Māori and Pacific health.
(Source: Cecil Lee)
Malaysia (2013) Impressive population-wide health gains with a low-cost health care system.
Mongolia (2013) The HiT highlights key gains and challenges as the health system evolves from the Soviet era Semaskho model.
(Source: Thom Watson)
Philippines (2011) Implementation of health system reforms has been challenged by the fragmentation of services.
(Source: Robert Prather)
Fiji (2011) Health system and policies must adapt to cope with increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases.
Asia Pacific Observatory
WHO Office for the South-East Asia Region
World Health House
Mahatma Gandhi Marg
New Delhi, India 110 002
Telephone: +91-11-23370804, 23370809-11