Lao PDR HiT

The Lao PDR HiT reports on impressive health gains over the past 3 decades due to strong political commitment to develop the health system. The results, however, have been mixed and gaps remain between policy intentions and effective implementation. There is an ongoing convergence towards specific health sector reforms to address the gaps and cover four policy frameworks: governance and leadership; health financing; service delivery; and human resources for health.

New Zealand HiT

New Zealand continues to have a predominantly tax-funded health system, providing universal coverage managed by the District Health Boards. The population enjoys high health status overall, but with significant inequalities in Māori and Pacific health. Current challenges for the health system include reducing inequalities in health, managing noncommunicable diseases and chronic conditions, reducing waiting times, improving productivity, and ensuring greater integration and coordination of services within and between primary and secondary care, and intersectorally with other social services.

Living HiT

In-between the complete renewals of a HiT, the APO has put in place a mechanism to update sections of the published HiTs, which are called the “Living HiTs” series. This approach of regularly updating a country’s HiT ensures its continued relevance to the member countries of the region. The Fiji and Philippine HiTs, published in 2011, were among the first HiTs released by the APO and have recently been updated using the Living HiTs series. The updates from these two countries show progress related to the financing, services and regulatory oversight, click to see more…


The Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies is a unique partnership of governments, developments agencies, and the research community.

Its mission is to act as a knowledge broker between researchers and policy makers and to promote evidence-based health policy-making in the region.

As well as commissioning health policy research under the Health Systems in Transition (HiTs) reports, it produces policy briefs and hosts policy dialogue events to bring together national policy-makers and international experts to address crucial health systems and policy issues.