The first health system in transition (HiT) review of Indonesia highlights the significant improvement in the overall health status of Indonesian over the last 25 years. However, the country faces remaining and foreseeing challenges in communicable diseases and emerging NCDs. The HiT concludes with the future challenges of expanding coverage of National health insurance scheme (JKN), reducing regional disparities in health-care services, managing resources and engaging private sector.
Globally, the number of people aged 60 years and over is expected to double by 2050. The APO’s Comparative Country Studies on Health System Responses to Population Ageing and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in Asia highlights that the projected increase in the number of older people, along with the rapid rise in the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors, will contribute to the increase in NCDs in the region.
The APO released the Fiji Living HiT to reflect the recent health reforms in the country, including service organization and planning, financing, human resources, and service delivery. Fiji attempted two waves of reforms with the initial wave between 1999 to 2004 and a second one ongoing since 2009. This living HiT attempts to capture those two waves of reform and the intervening recentralization period.
- The APO Releases Comparative Country Studies on Strategic Purchasing in China, Indonesia and the Philippines
- Policy Brief on The Challenge of Extending Universal Coverage to Non-Poor Informal Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Asia
- Policy Brief on Factors Conducive to the Development of Health Technology Assessment in Asia
- Case-based Payments for Hospital Funding in Asia
- The People’s Republic of China HiT notes that the country has made great achievements in improving health status over the past six decades, mainly due to the government’s commitment to health, provision of cost effective public health programmes, growing coverage of health financial protection mechanisms and investments in an extensive health-care delivery network.
- Kingdom of Tonga HiT: eased The Kingdom of Tonga has had one of the best overall levels of health within the Pacific as a result of a dramatic reduction in communicable diseases and maternal and child mortality since the 1950s.
- Kingdom of Thailand HiT: The Thailand HiT reports that sustained political commitment to the health of the population since the 1970s has resulted in significant investment in health infrastructure, in particular primary health care, district and provincial referral hospitals, and strengthened the overall functioning of the Thai health system. After Thailand achieved universal health coverage in 2002, public expenditure on health significantly increased from 63% to 77% and out-of-pocket expense was reduced from 27.2% to 12.4% of the total health spending in 2011.
- Public Hospital Governance in Asia and the Pacific, Vol 1 No.1, 2015
- Myanmar HiT: The Myanmar HiT reports of positive indications that, along with the changes in the country’s political system and administrative structures following the 2010 national elections, the new government is undertaking important reforms in the health sector. Along with the need to further improve health equity among its population, Myanmar has to overcome supply side limitations of the past, and effectively manage incoming challenges.
- Republic of Korea HiT: The Republic of Korea HiT notes that economic development and universal health coverage through national health insurance has led to a rapid improvement in health outcomes. Overall, the health status of the Korean population is better than that of many other Asian countries. Reducing inequality in health coverage outcomes, strengthening primary health care and improving coordination between hospitals and long-term care facilities to meet the needs of the aged population are the challenges facing the Government.
- Bangladesh HiT: The Bangladesh HiT determines that although Bangladesh has achieved impressive improvements in population health status, attaining Millennium Development Goal 4 target of reducing under-five child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015, and improving other key indicators such as maternal mortality, immunization coverage, and survival rates from malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrhoeal diseases, it is still a long way from achieving universal health coverage.
- Cambodia HiT: The Cambodia HiT reports that the national health sector reforms initiated two decades ago have had a positive impact on Cambodia’s health sector. The country’s health status has substantially improved since 1993 and is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. Improving the quality of care is now the most pressing imperative in health-system strengthening.
- Solomon Islands HiT: The Solomon Islands HiT determines that the performance of the country’s health system is positive, achieving high coverage, high satisfaction levels, and steady progress on health outcomes. Nonetheless, the country faces important health challenges that could undermine development gains made to date.
- Policy brief: Quality of Care
- Policy brief: Strengthening vital statistics systems
- Policy Brief: Purchasing arrangements with the private sector to provide primary health care in underserved areas, June 2014
- Lao PDR HiT: The Lao PDR HiT reports on impressive health gains over the past 3 decades due to strong political commitment ...
- New Zealand HiT: New Zealand continues to have a predominantly tax-funded health system, providing universal coverage ...
- Mongolia HiT: The Mongolian government has been committed to ensuring sustainable funding to the health sector ...
- Malaysia HiT: Impressive population-wide health gains with a low-cost health care system.
- Philippines HiT: Implementation of health system reforms has been challenged by the fragmentation of services.
- Fiji HiT: Health system and policies must adapt to cope with increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases.
The Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (the APO) is a collaborative partnership of interested governments, international agencies, foundations, and researchers that promotes evidence-informed health system policy regionally and in all countries in the Asia Pacific region.
Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies
WHO Office for the South-East Asia Region
World Health House
Mahatma Gandhi Marg
New Delhi, India 110 002
Telephone: +91-11-23370804, 23370809-11